Release: 1.1.0b1 | Release Date: not released

SQLAlchemy 1.1 Documentation

Source code for examples.dogpile_caching.caching_query


Represent functions and classes
which allow the usage of Dogpile caching with SQLAlchemy.
Introduces a query option called FromCache.

The three new concepts introduced here are:

 * CachingQuery - a Query subclass that caches and
   retrieves results in/from dogpile.cache.
 * FromCache - a query option that establishes caching
   parameters on a Query
 * RelationshipCache - a variant of FromCache which is specific
   to a query invoked during a lazy load.
 * _params_from_query - extracts value parameters from
   a Query.

The rest of what's here are standard SQLAlchemy and
dogpile.cache constructs.

from sqlalchemy.orm.interfaces import MapperOption
from sqlalchemy.orm.query import Query
from sqlalchemy.sql import visitors
from dogpile.cache.api import NO_VALUE

class CachingQuery(Query):
    """A Query subclass which optionally loads full results from a dogpile
    cache region.

    The CachingQuery optionally stores additional state that allows it to consult
    a dogpile.cache cache before accessing the database, in the form
    of a FromCache or RelationshipCache object.   Each of these objects
    refer to the name of a :class:`dogpile.cache.Region` that's been configured
    and stored in a lookup dictionary.  When such an object has associated
    itself with the CachingQuery, the corresponding :class:`dogpile.cache.Region`
    is used to locate a cached result.  If none is present, then the
    Query is invoked normally, the results being cached.

    The FromCache and RelationshipCache mapper options below represent
    the "public" method of configuring this state upon the CachingQuery.


    def __init__(self, regions, *args, **kw):
        self.cache_regions = regions
        Query.__init__(self, *args, **kw)

    def __iter__(self):
        """override __iter__ to pull results from dogpile
           if particular attributes have been configured.

           Note that this approach does *not* detach the loaded objects from
           the current session. If the cache backend is an in-process cache
           (like "memory") and lives beyond the scope of the current session's
           transaction, those objects may be expired. The method here can be
           modified to first expunge() each loaded item from the current
           session before returning the list of items, so that the items
           in the cache are not the same ones in the current Session.

        if hasattr(self, '_cache_region'):
            return self.get_value(createfunc=lambda: list(Query.__iter__(self)))
            return Query.__iter__(self)

    def _get_cache_plus_key(self):
        """Return a cache region plus key."""

        dogpile_region = self.cache_regions[self._cache_region.region]
        if self._cache_region.cache_key:
            key = self._cache_region.cache_key
            key = _key_from_query(self)
        return dogpile_region, key

    def invalidate(self):
        """Invalidate the cache value represented by this Query."""

        dogpile_region, cache_key = self._get_cache_plus_key()

    def get_value(self, merge=True, createfunc=None,
                    expiration_time=None, ignore_expiration=False):
        """Return the value from the cache for this query.

        Raise KeyError if no value present and no
        createfunc specified.

        dogpile_region, cache_key = self._get_cache_plus_key()

        # ignore_expiration means, if the value is in the cache
        # but is expired, return it anyway.   This doesn't make sense
        # with createfunc, which says, if the value is expired, generate
        # a new value.
        assert not ignore_expiration or not createfunc, \
                "Can't ignore expiration and also provide createfunc"

        if ignore_expiration or not createfunc:
            cached_value = dogpile_region.get(cache_key,
            cached_value = dogpile_region.get_or_create(
        if cached_value is NO_VALUE:
            raise KeyError(cache_key)
        if merge:
            cached_value = self.merge_result(cached_value, load=False)
        return cached_value

    def set_value(self, value):
        """Set the value in the cache for this query."""

        dogpile_region, cache_key = self._get_cache_plus_key()
        dogpile_region.set(cache_key, value)

def query_callable(regions, query_cls=CachingQuery):
    def query(*arg, **kw):
        return query_cls(regions, *arg, **kw)
    return query

def _key_from_query(query, qualifier=None):
    """Given a Query, create a cache key.

    There are many approaches to this; here we use the simplest,
    which is to create an md5 hash of the text of the SQL statement,
    combined with stringified versions of all the bound parameters
    within it.     There's a bit of a performance hit with
    compiling out "query.statement" here; other approaches include
    setting up an explicit cache key with a particular Query,
    then combining that with the bound parameter values.


    stmt = query.with_labels().statement
    compiled = stmt.compile()
    params = compiled.params

    # here we return the key as a long string.  our "key mangler"
    # set up with the region will boil it down to an md5.
    return " ".join(
                    [str(compiled)] +
                    [str(params[k]) for k in sorted(params)])

class FromCache(MapperOption):
    """Specifies that a Query should load results from a cache."""

    propagate_to_loaders = False

    def __init__(self, region="default", cache_key=None):
        """Construct a new FromCache.

        :param region: the cache region.  Should be a
        region configured in the dictionary of dogpile

        :param cache_key: optional.  A string cache key
        that will serve as the key to the query.   Use this
        if your query has a huge amount of parameters (such
        as when using in_()) which correspond more simply to
        some other identifier.

        self.region = region
        self.cache_key = cache_key

    def process_query(self, query):
        """Process a Query during normal loading operation."""
        query._cache_region = self

class RelationshipCache(MapperOption):
    """Specifies that a Query as called within a "lazy load"
       should load results from a cache."""

    propagate_to_loaders = True

    def __init__(self, attribute, region="default", cache_key=None):
        """Construct a new RelationshipCache.

        :param attribute: A Class.attribute which
        indicates a particular class relationship() whose
        lazy loader should be pulled from the cache.

        :param region: name of the cache region.

        :param cache_key: optional.  A string cache key
        that will serve as the key to the query, bypassing
        the usual means of forming a key from the Query itself.

        self.region = region
        self.cache_key = cache_key
        self._relationship_options = {
            (, self

    def process_query_conditionally(self, query):
        """Process a Query that is used within a lazy loader.

        (the process_query_conditionally() method is a SQLAlchemy
        hook invoked only within lazyload.)

        if query._current_path:
            mapper, prop = query._current_path[-2:]
            key = prop.key

            for cls in mapper.class_.__mro__:
                if (cls, key) in self._relationship_options:
                    relationship_option = self._relationship_options[(cls, key)]
                    query._cache_region = relationship_option

    def and_(self, option):
        """Chain another RelationshipCache option to this one.

        While many RelationshipCache objects can be specified on a single
        Query separately, chaining them together allows for a more efficient
        lookup during load.

        return self