Release: 1.1.0b1 | Release Date: not released

SQLAlchemy 1.1 Documentation

0.3 Changelog


Released: Sun Oct 14 2007


  • [orm] added a check for joining from A->B using join(), along two different m2m tables. this raises an error in 0.3 but is possible in 0.4 when aliases are used.

    References: #687

  • [orm] fixed small exception throw bug in Session.merge()

  • [orm] fixed bug where mapper, being linked to a join where one table had no PK columns, would not detect that the joined table had no PK.

  • [orm] fixed bugs in determining proper sync clauses from custom inherit conditions

    References: #769

  • [orm] backref remove object operation doesn’t fail if the other-side collection doesn’t contain the item, supports noload collections

    References: #813


  • [engine] fixed another occasional race condition which could occur when using pool with threadlocal setting


  • [sql] tweak DISTINCT precedence for clauses like func.count(t.c.col.distinct())

  • [sql] Fixed detection of internal ‘$’ characters in :bind$params

    References: #719

  • [sql] don’t assume join criterion consists only of column objects

    References: #768

  • [sql] adjusted operator precedence of NOT to match ‘==’ and others, so that ~(x==y) produces NOT (x=y), which is compatible with MySQL < 5.0 (doesn’t like “NOT x=y”)

    References: #764


  • [mysql] fixed specification of YEAR columns when generating schema


  • [sqlite] passthrough for stringified dates


  • [mssql] added support for TIME columns (simulated using DATETIME)

    References: #679


    References: #721

  • [mssql] index names are now quoted when dropping from reflected tables

    References: #684

  • [mssql] can now specify a DSN for PyODBC, using a URI like mssql:///?dsn=bob


  • [oracle] removed LONG_STRING, LONG_BINARY from “binary” types, so type objects don’t try to read their values as LOB.

    References: #622, #751


  • [firebird] supports_sane_rowcount() set to False due to ticket #370 (right way).

  • [firebird] fixed reflection of Column’s nullable property.


  • [postgres] when reflecting tables from alternate schemas, the “default” placed upon the primary key, i.e. usually a sequence name, has the “schema” name unconditionally quoted, so that schema names which need quoting are fine. its slightly unnecessary for schema names which don’t need quoting but not harmful.


Released: Fri Jul 20 2007


  • [general] a new mutex that was added in 0.3.9 causes the pool_timeout feature to fail during a race condition; threads would raise TimeoutError immediately with no delay if many threads push the pool into overflow at the same time. this issue has been fixed.


  • [orm] cleanup to connection-bound sessions, SessionTransaction


  • [sql] got connection-bound metadata to work with implicit execution

  • [sql] foreign key specs can have any chararcter in their identifiers

    References: #667

  • [sql] added commutativity-awareness to binary clause comparisons to each other, improves ORM lazy load optimization

    References: #664


  • [postgres] fixed max identifier length (63)

    References: #571


Released: Sun Jul 15 2007


  • [general] better error message for NoSuchColumnError

    References: #607

  • [general] finally figured out how to get setuptools version in, available as sqlalchemy.__version__

    References: #428

  • [general] the various “engine” arguments, such as “engine”, “connectable”, “engine_or_url”, “bind_to”, etc. are all present, but deprecated. they all get replaced by the single term “bind”. you also set the “bind” of MetaData using metadata.bind = <engine or connection>


  • [orm] forwards-compatibility with 0.4: added one(), first(), and all() to Query. almost all Query functionality from 0.4 is present in 0.3.9 for forwards-compat purposes.

  • [orm] reset_joinpoint() really really works this time, promise ! lets you re-join from the root: query.join([‘a’, ‘b’]).filter(<crit>).reset_joinpoint().join([‘a’, ‘c’]).filter(<some other crit>).all() in 0.4 all join() calls start from the “root”

  • [orm] added synchronization to the mapper() construction step, to avoid thread collisions when pre-existing mappers are compiling in a different thread

    References: #613

  • [orm] a warning is issued by Mapper when two primary key columns of the same name are munged into a single attribute. this happens frequently when mapping to joins (or inheritance).

  • [orm] synonym() properties are fully supported by all Query joining/ with_parent operations

    References: #598

  • [orm] fixed very stupid bug when deleting items with many-to-many uselist=False relations

  • [orm] remember all that stuff about polymorphic_union ? for joined table inheritance ? Funny thing... You sort of don’t need it for joined table inheritance, you can just string all the tables together via outerjoin(). The UNION still applies if concrete tables are involved, though (since nothing to join them on).

  • [orm] small fix to eager loading to better work with eager loads to polymorphic mappers that are using a straight “outerjoin” clause


  • [sql] ForeignKey to a table in a schema that’s not the default schema requires the schema to be explicit; i.e. ForeignKey(‘’)

  • [sql] MetaData can now be constructed with an engine or url as the first argument, just like BoundMetaData

  • [sql] BoundMetaData is now deprecated, and MetaData is a direct substitute.

  • [sql] DynamicMetaData has been renamed to ThreadLocalMetaData. the DynamicMetaData name is deprecated and is an alias for ThreadLocalMetaData or a regular MetaData if threadlocal=False

  • [sql] composite primary key is represented as a non-keyed set to allow for composite keys consisting of cols with the same name; occurs within a Join. helps inheritance scenarios formulate correct PK.

  • [sql] improved ability to get the “correct” and most minimal set of primary key columns from a join, equating foreign keys and otherwise equated columns. this is also mostly to help inheritance scenarios formulate the best choice of primary key columns.

    References: #185

  • [sql] added ‘bind’ argument to Sequence.create()/drop(), ColumnDefault.execute()

  • [sql] columns can be overridden in a reflected table with a “key” attribute different than the column’s name, including for primary key columns

    References: #650

  • [sql] fixed “ambiguous column” result detection, when dupe col names exist in a result

    References: #657

  • [sql] some enhancements to “column targeting”, the ability to match a column to a “corresponding” column in another selectable. this affects mostly ORM ability to map to complex joins

  • [sql] MetaData and all SchemaItems are safe to use with pickle. slow table reflections can be dumped into a pickled file to be reused later. Just reconnect the engine to the metadata after unpickling.

    References: #619

  • [sql] added a mutex to QueuePool’s “overflow” calculation to prevent a race condition that can bypass max_overflow

  • [sql] fixed grouping of compound selects to give correct results. will break on sqlite in some cases, but those cases were producing incorrect results anyway, sqlite doesn’t support grouped compound selects

    References: #623

  • [sql] fixed precedence of operators so that parenthesis are correctly applied

    References: #620

  • [sql] calling <column>.in_() (i.e. with no arguments) will return “CASE WHEN (<column> IS NULL) THEN NULL ELSE 0 END = 1)”, so that NULL or False is returned in all cases, rather than throwing an error

    References: #545

  • [sql] fixed “where”/”from” criterion of select() to accept a unicode string in addition to regular string - both convert to text()

  • [sql] added standalone distinct() function in addition to column.distinct()

    References: #558

  • [sql] result.last_inserted_ids() should return a list that is identically sized to the primary key constraint of the table. values that were “passively” created and not available via cursor.lastrowid will be None.

  • [sql] long-identifier detection fixed to use > rather than >= for max ident length

    References: #589

  • [sql] fixed bug where selectable.corresponding_column(selectable.c.col) would not return selectable.c.col, if the selectable is a join of a table and another join involving the same table. messed up ORM decision making

    References: #593

  • [sql] added Interval type to

    References: #595


  • [mysql] fixed catching of some errors that imply a dropped connection

    References: #625

  • [mysql] fixed escaping of the modulo operator

    References: #624

  • [mysql] added ‘fields’ to reserved words

    References: #590

  • [mysql] various reflection enhancement/fixes


  • [sqlite] rearranged dialect initialization so it has time to warn about pysqlite1 being too old.

  • [sqlite] sqlite better handles datetime/date/time objects mixed and matched with various Date/Time/DateTime columns

  • [sqlite] string PK column inserts don’t get overwritten with OID

    References: #603


  • [mssql] fix port option handling for pyodbc

    References: #634

  • [mssql] now able to reflect start and increment values for identity columns

  • [mssql] preliminary support for using scope_identity() with pyodbc


  • [oracle] datetime fixes: got subsecond TIMESTAMP to work, added OracleDate which supports types.Date with only year/month/day

    References: #604

  • [oracle] added dialect flag “auto_convert_lobs”, defaults to True; will cause any LOB objects detected in a result set to be forced into OracleBinary so that the LOB is read() automatically, if no typemap was present (i.e., if a textual execute() was issued).

  • [oracle] mod operator ‘%’ produces MOD

    References: #624

  • [oracle] converts cx_oracle datetime objects to Python datetime.datetime when Python 2.3 used

    References: #542

  • [oracle] fixed unicode conversion in Oracle TEXT type


  • [ext] iteration over dict association proxies is now dict-like, not InstrumentedList-like (e.g. over keys instead of values)

  • [ext] association proxies no longer bind tightly to source collections, and are constructed with a thunk instead

    References: #597

  • [ext] added selectone_by() to assignmapper

  • [postgres] fixed escaping of the modulo operator

    References: #624

  • [postgres] added support for reflection of domains

    References: #570

  • [postgres] types which are missing during reflection resolve to Null type instead of raising an error

  • [postgres] the fix in “schema” above fixes reflection of foreign keys from an alt-schema table to a public schema table


Released: Sat Jun 02 2007


  • [orm] added reset_joinpoint() method to Query, moves the “join point” back to the starting mapper. 0.4 will change the behavior of join() to reset the “join point” in all cases so this is an interim method. for forwards compatibility, ensure joins across multiple relations are specified using a single join(), i.e. join([‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’]).

  • [orm] fixed bug in query.instances() that wouldn’t handle more than on additional mapper or one additional column.

  • [orm] “delete-orphan” no longer implies “delete”. ongoing effort to separate the behavior of these two operations.

  • [orm] many-to-many relationships properly set the type of bind params for delete operations on the association table

  • [orm] many-to-many relationships check that the number of rows deleted from the association table by a delete operation matches the expected results

  • [orm] session.get() and session.load() propagate **kwargs through to query

  • [orm] fix to polymorphic query which allows the original polymorphic_union to be embedded into a correlated subquery

    References: #577

  • [orm] fix to select_by(<propname>=<object instance>) -style joins in conjunction with many-to-many relationships, bug introduced in r2556

  • [orm] the “primary_key” argument to mapper() is propagated to the “polymorphic” mapper. primary key columns in this list get normalized to that of the mapper’s local table.

  • [orm] restored logging of “lazy loading clause” under sa.orm.strategies logger, got removed in 0.3.7

  • [orm] improved support for eagerloading of properties off of mappers that are mapped to select() statements; i.e. eagerloader is better at locating the correct selectable with which to attach its LEFT OUTER JOIN.


  • [sql] _Label class overrides compare_self to return its ultimate object. meaning, if you say someexpr.label(‘foo’) == 5, it produces the correct “someexpr == 5”.

  • [sql] _Label propagates “_hide_froms()” so that scalar selects behave more properly with regards to FROM clause #574

  • [sql] fix to long name generation when using oid_column as an order by (oids used heavily in mapper queries)

  • [sql] significant speed improvement to ResultProxy, pre-caches TypeEngine dialect implementations and saves on function calls per column

  • [sql] parenthesis are applied to clauses via a new _Grouping construct. uses operator precedence to more intelligently apply parenthesis to clauses, provides cleaner nesting of clauses (doesn’t mutate clauses placed in other clauses, i.e. no ‘parens’ flag)

  • [sql] added ‘modifier’ keyword, works like func.<foo> except does not add parenthesis. e.g. select([modifier.DISTINCT(...)]) etc.

  • [sql] removed “no group by’s in a select that’s part of a UNION” restriction

    References: #578


  • [mysql] Nearly all MySQL column types are now supported for declaration and reflection. Added NCHAR, NVARCHAR, VARBINARY, TINYBLOB, LONGBLOB, YEAR

  • [mysql] The sqltypes.Binary passthrough now always builds a BLOB, avoiding problems with very old database versions

  • [mysql] support for column-level CHARACTER SET and COLLATE declarations, as well as ASCII, UNICODE, NATIONAL and BINARY shorthand.


  • [firebird] set max identifier length to 31

  • [firebird] supports_sane_rowcount() set to False due to ticket #370. versioned_id_col feature wont work in FB.

  • [firebird] some execution fixes

  • [firebird] new association proxy implementation, implementing complete proxies to list, dict and set-based relation collections

  • [firebird] added orderinglist, a custom list class that synchronizes an object attribute with that object’s position in the list

  • [firebird] small fix to SelectResultsExt to not bypass itself during select().

  • [firebird] added filter(), filter_by() to assignmapper


  • [engines] added detach() to Connection, allows underlying DBAPI connection to be detached from its pool, closing on dereference/close() instead of being reused by the pool.

  • [engines] added invalidate() to Connection, immediately invalidates the Connection and its underlying DBAPI connection.


Released: Sun Apr 29 2007


  • [orm] fixed critical issue when, after options(eagerload()) is used, the mapper would then always apply query “wrapping” behavior for all subsequent LIMIT/OFFSET/DISTINCT queries, even if no eager loading was applied on those subsequent queries.

  • [orm] added query.with_parent(someinstance) method. searches for target instance using lazy join criterion from parent instance. takes optional string “property” to isolate the desired relation. also adds static Query.query_from_parent(instance, property) version.

    References: #541

  • [orm] improved query.XXX_by(someprop=someinstance) querying to use similar methodology to with_parent, i.e. using the “lazy” clause which prevents adding the remote instance’s table to the SQL, thereby making more complex conditions possible

    References: #554

  • [orm] added generative versions of aggregates, i.e. sum(), avg(), etc. to query. used via query.apply_max(), apply_sum(), etc. #552

  • [orm] fix to using distinct() or distinct=True in combination with join() and similar

  • [orm] corresponding to label/bindparam name generation, eager loaders generate deterministic names for the aliases they create using md5 hashes.

  • [orm] improved/fixed custom collection classes when giving it “set”/ “sets.Set” classes or subclasses (was still looking for append() methods on them during lazy loads)

  • [orm] restored old “column_property()” ORM function (used to be called “column()”) to force any column expression to be added as a property on a mapper, particularly those that aren’t present in the mapped selectable. this allows “scalar expressions” of any kind to be added as relations (though they have issues with eager loads).

  • [orm] fix to many-to-many relationships targeting polymorphic mappers

    References: #533

  • [orm] making progress with session.merge() as well as combining its usage with entity_name

    References: #543

  • [orm] the usual adjustments to relationships between inheriting mappers, in this case establishing relation()s to subclass mappers where the join conditions come from the superclass’ table


  • [sql] keys() of result set columns are not lowercased, come back exactly as they’re expressed in cursor.description. note this causes colnames to be all caps in oracle.

  • [sql] preliminary support for unicode table names, column names and SQL statements added, for databases which can support them. Works with sqlite and postgres so far. Mysql mostly works except the has_table() function does not work. Reflection works too.

  • [sql] the Unicode type is now a direct subclass of String, which now contains all the “convert_unicode” logic. This helps the variety of unicode situations that occur in db’s such as MS-SQL to be better handled and allows subclassing of the Unicode datatype.

    References: #522

  • [sql] ClauseElements can be used in in_() clauses now, such as bind parameters, etc. #476

  • [sql] reverse operators implemented for CompareMixin elements, allows expressions like “5 + somecolumn” etc. #474

  • [sql] the “where” criterion of an update() and delete() now correlates embedded select() statements against the table being updated or deleted. this works the same as nested select() statement correlation, and can be disabled via the correlate=False flag on the embedded select().

  • [sql] column labels are now generated in the compilation phase, which means their lengths are dialect-dependent. So on oracle a label that gets truncated to 30 chars will go out to 63 characters on postgres. Also, the true labelname is always attached as the accessor on the parent Selectable so there’s no need to be aware of the “truncated” label names.

    References: #512

  • [sql] column label and bind param “truncation” also generate deterministic names now, based on their ordering within the full statement being compiled. this means the same statement will produce the same string across application restarts and allowing DB query plan caching to work better.

  • [sql] the “mini” column labels generated when using subqueries, which are to work around glitchy SQLite behavior that doesn’t understand “” as equivalent to “id”, are now only generated in the case that those named columns are selected from (part of)

    References: #513

  • [sql] the label() method on ColumnElement will properly propagate the TypeEngine of the base element out to the label, including a label() created from a scalar=True select() statement.

  • [sql] MS-SQL better detects when a query is a subquery and knows not to generate ORDER BY phrases for those

    References: #513

  • [sql] fix for fetchmany() “size” argument being positional in most dbapis

    References: #505

  • [sql] sending None as an argument to func.<something> will produce an argument of NULL

  • [sql] query strings in unicode URLs get keys encoded to ascii for **kwargs compat

  • [sql] slight tweak to raw execute() change to also support tuples for positional parameters, not just lists

    References: #523

  • [sql] fix to case() construct to propagate the type of the first WHEN condition as the return type of the case statement


  • [mysql] support for SSL arguments given as inline within URL query string, prefixed with “ssl_”, courtesy

  • [mysql] [<schemaname>] mysql uses “DESCRIBE.<tablename>”, catching exceptions if table doesn’t exist, in order to determine if a table exists. this supports unicode table names as well as schema names. tested with MySQL5 but should work with 4.1 series as well. (#557)


  • [sqlite] removed silly behavior where sqlite would reflect UNIQUE indexes as part of the primary key (?!)


  • [mssql] pyodbc is now the preferred DB-API for MSSQL, and if no module is specifically requested, will be loaded first on a module probe.

  • [mssql] The @@SCOPE_IDENTITY is now used instead of @@IDENTITY. This behavior may be overridden with the engine_connect “use_scope_identity” keyword parameter, which may also be specified in the dburi.


  • [oracle] small fix to allow successive compiles of the same SELECT object which features LIMIT/OFFSET. oracle dialect needs to modify the object to have ROW_NUMBER OVER and wasn’t performing the full series of steps on successive compiles.


  • [engines] warnings module used for issuing warnings (instead of logging)

  • [engines] cleanup of DBAPI import strategies across all engines

    References: #480

  • [engines] refactoring of engine internals which reduces complexity, number of codepaths; places more state inside of ExecutionContext to allow more dialect control of cursor handling, result sets. ResultProxy totally refactored and also has two versions of “buffered” result sets used for different purposes.

  • [engines] server side cursor support fully functional in postgres.

    References: #514

  • [engines] improved framework for auto-invalidation of connections that have lost their underlying database, via dialect-specific detection of exceptions corresponding to that database’s disconnect related error messages. Additionally, when a “connection no longer open” condition is detected, the entire connection pool is discarded and replaced with a new instance. #516

  • [engines] the dialects within sqlalchemy.databases become a setuptools entry points. loading the built-in database dialects works the same as always, but if none found will fall back to trying pkg_resources to load an external module

    References: #521

  • [engines] Engine contains a “url” attribute referencing the url.URL object used by create_engine().

  • [informix] informix support added ! courtesy James Zhang, who put a ton of effort in.

  • [extensions] big fix to AssociationProxy so that multiple AssociationProxy objects can be associated with a single association collection.

  • [extensions] assign_mapper names methods according to their keys (i.e. __name__) #551


Released: Fri Mar 23 2007


  • [orm] the full featureset of the SelectResults extension has been merged into a new set of methods available off of Query. These methods all provide “generative” behavior, whereby the Query is copied and a new one returned with additional criterion added. The new methods include:

    • filter() - applies select criterion to the query
    • filter_by() - applies “by”-style criterion to the query
    • avg() - return the avg() function on the given column
    • join() - join to a property (or across a list of properties)
    • outerjoin() - like join() but uses LEFT OUTER JOIN
    • limit()/offset() - apply LIMIT/OFFSET range-based access which applies limit/offset: session.query(Foo)[3:5]
    • distinct() - apply DISTINCT
    • list() - evaluate the criterion and return results

    no incompatible changes have been made to Query’s API and no methods have been deprecated. Existing methods like select(), select_by(), get(), get_by() all execute the query at once and return results like they always did. join_to()/join_via() are still there although the generative join()/outerjoin() methods are easier to use.

  • [orm] the return value for multiple mappers used with instances() now returns a cartesian product of the requested list of mappers, represented as a list of tuples. this corresponds to the documented behavior. So that instances match up properly, the “uniquing” is disabled when this feature is used.

  • [orm] Query has add_entity() and add_column() generative methods. these will add the given mapper/class or ColumnElement to the query at compile time, and apply them to the instances() method. the user is responsible for constructing reasonable join conditions (otherwise you can get full cartesian products). result set is the list of tuples, non-uniqued.

  • [orm] strings and columns can also be sent to the *args of instances() where those exact result columns will be part of the result tuples.

  • [orm] a full select() construct can be passed to (which worked anyway), but also query.selectfirst(), query.selectone() which will be used as is (i.e. no query is compiled). works similarly to sending the results to instances().

  • [orm] eager loading will not “aliasize” “order by” clauses that were placed in the select statement by something other than the eager loader itself, to fix possibility of dupe columns as illustrated in. however, this means you have to be more careful with the columns placed in the “order by” of, that you have explicitly named them in your criterion (i.e. you cant rely on the eager loader adding them in for you)

    References: #495

  • [orm] added a handy multi-use “identity_key()” method to Session, allowing the generation of identity keys for primary key values, instances, and rows, courtesy Daniel Miller

  • [orm] many-to-many table will be properly handled even for operations that occur on the “backref” side of the operation

    References: #249

  • [orm] added “refresh-expire” cascade. allows refresh() and expire() calls to propagate along relationships.

    References: #492

  • [orm] more fixes to polymorphic relations, involving proper lazy-clause generation on many-to-one relationships to polymorphic mappers. also fixes to detection of “direction”, more specific targeting of columns that belong to the polymorphic union vs. those that don’t.

    References: #493

  • [orm] some fixes to relationship calcs when using “viewonly=True” to pull in other tables into the join condition which arent parent of the relationship’s parent/child mappings

  • [orm] flush fixes on cyclical-referential relationships that contain references to other instances outside of the cyclical chain, when some of the objects in the cycle are not actually part of the flush

  • [orm] put an aggressive check for “flushing object A with a collection of B’s, but you put a C in the collection” error condition - even if C is a subclass of B, unless B’s mapper loads polymorphically. Otherwise, the collection will later load a “B” which should be a “C” (since its not polymorphic) which breaks in bi-directional relationships (i.e. C has its A, but A’s backref will lazyload it as a different instance of type “B”) This check is going to bite some of you who do this without issues, so the error message will also document a flag “enable_typechecks=False” to disable this checking. But be aware that bi-directional relationships in particular become fragile without this check.

    References: #500


  • [sql] bindparam() names are now repeatable! specify two distinct bindparam()s with the same name in a single statement, and the key will be shared. proper positional/named args translate at compile time. for the old behavior of “aliasing” bind parameters with conflicting names, specify “unique=True” - this option is still used internally for all the auto-genererated (value-based) bind parameters.

  • [sql] slightly better support for bind params as column clauses, either via bindparam() or via literal(), i.e. select([literal(‘foo’)])

  • [sql] MetaData can bind to an engine either via “url” or “engine” kwargs to constructor, or by using connect() method. BoundMetaData is identical to MetaData except engine_or_url param is required. DynamicMetaData is the same and provides thread-local connections be default.

  • [sql] exists() becomes useable as a standalone selectable, not just in a WHERE clause, i.e. exists([columns], criterion).select()

  • [sql] correlated subqueries work inside of ORDER BY, GROUP BY

  • [sql] fixed function execution with explicit connections, i.e. conn.execute(func.dosomething())

  • [sql] use_labels flag on select() wont auto-create labels for literal text column elements, since we can make no assumptions about the text. to create labels for literal columns, you can say “somecol AS somelabel”, or use literal_column(“somecol”).label(“somelabel”)

  • [sql] quoting wont occur for literal columns when they are “proxied” into the column collection for their selectable (is_literal flag is propagated). literal columns are specified via literal_column(“somestring”).

  • [sql] added “fold_equivalents” boolean argument to, which removes ‘duplicate’ columns from the resulting column clause that are known to be equivalent based on the join condition. this is of great usage when constructing subqueries of joins which Postgres complains about if duplicate column names are present.

  • [sql] fixed use_alter flag on ForeignKeyConstraint

    References: #503

  • [sql] fixed usage of 2.4-only “reversed” in

    References: #506

  • [sql] for hackers, refactored the “visitor” system of ClauseElement and SchemaItem so that the traversal of items is controlled by the ClauseVisitor itself, using the method visitor.traverse(item). accept_visitor() methods can still be called directly but will not do any traversal of child items. ClauseElement/SchemaItem now have a configurable get_children() method to return the collection of child elements for each parent object. This allows the full traversal of items to be clear and unambiguous (as well as loggable), with an easy method of limiting a traversal (just pass flags which are picked up by appropriate get_children() methods).

    References: #501

  • [sql] the “else_” parameter to the case statement now properly works when set to zero.


  • [mysql] added a catchall **kwargs to MSString, to help reflection of obscure types (like “varchar() binary” in MS 4.0)

  • [mysql] added explicit MSTimeStamp type which takes effect when using types.TIMESTAMP.


  • [oracle] got binary working for any size input ! cx_oracle works fine, it was my fault as BINARY was being passed and not BLOB for setinputsizes (also unit tests weren’t even setting input sizes).

  • [oracle] also fixed CLOB read/write on a separate changeset.

  • [oracle] auto_setinputsizes defaults to True for Oracle, fixed cases where it improperly propagated bad types.


  • [extensions] options() method on SelectResults now implemented “generatively” like the rest of the SelectResults methods. But you’re going to just use Query now anyway.

    References: #472

  • [extensions] query() method is added by assignmapper. this helps with navigating to all the new generative methods on Query.

  • [ms-sql]

    removed seconds input on DATE column types (probably
    should remove the time altogether)

  • [ms-sql] null values in float fields no longer raise errors

  • [ms-sql] LIMIT with OFFSET now raises an error (MS-SQL has no OFFSET support)

  • [ms-sql] added an facility to use the MSSQL type VARCHAR(max) instead of TEXT for large unsized string fields. Use the new “text_as_varchar” to turn it on.

    References: #509

  • [ms-sql] ORDER BY clauses without a LIMIT are now stripped in subqueries, as MS-SQL forbids this usage

  • [ms-sql] cleanup of module importing code; specifiable DB-API module; more explicit ordering of module preferences.

    References: #480


Released: Thu Feb 22 2007


  • [orm] [bugs] another refactoring to relationship calculation. Allows more accurate ORM behavior with relationships from/to/between mappers, particularly polymorphic mappers, also their usage with Query, SelectResults. tickets include,,.

    References: #441, #448, #439

  • [orm] [bugs] removed deprecated method of specifying custom collections on classes; you must now use the “collection_class” option. the old way was beginning to produce conflicts when people used assign_mapper(), which now patches an “options” method, in conjunction with a relationship named “options”. (relationships take precedence over monkeypatched assign_mapper methods).

  • [orm] [bugs] extension() query option propagates to Mapper._instance() method so that all loading-related methods get called

    References: #454

  • [orm] [bugs] eager relation to an inheriting mapper wont fail if no rows returned for the relationship.

  • [orm] [bugs] eager relation loading bug fixed for eager relation on multiple descendant classes

    References: #486

  • [orm] [bugs] fix for very large topological sorts, courtesy ants.aasma at gmail

    References: #423

  • [orm] [bugs] eager loading is slightly more strict about detecting “self-referential” relationships, specifically between polymorphic mappers. this results in an “eager degrade” to lazy loading.

  • [orm] [bugs] improved support for complex queries embedded into “where” criterion for

    References: #449

  • [orm] [bugs] mapper options like eagerload(), lazyload(), deferred(), will work for “synonym()” relationships

    References: #485

  • [orm] [bugs] fixed bug where cascade operations incorrectly included deleted collection items in the cascade

    References: #445

  • [orm] [bugs] fixed relationship deletion error when one-to-many child item is moved to a new parent in a single unit of work

    References: #478

  • [orm] [bugs] fixed relationship deletion error where parent/child with a single column as PK/FK on the child would raise a “blank out the primary key” error, if manually deleted or “delete” cascade without “delete-orphan” was used

  • [orm] [bugs] fix to deferred so that load operation doesn’t mistakenly occur when only PK col attributes are set

  • [orm] [enhancements] implemented foreign_keys argument to mapper. use in conjunction with primaryjoin/secondaryjoin arguments to specify/override foreign keys defined on the Table instance.

    References: #385

  • [orm] [enhancements] contains_eager(‘foo’) automatically implies eagerload(‘foo’)

  • [orm] [enhancements] added “alias” argument to contains_eager(). use it to specify the string name or Alias instance of an alias used in the query for the eagerly loaded child items. easier to use than “decorator”

  • [orm] [enhancements] added “contains_alias()” option for result set mapping to an alias of the mapped table

  • [orm] [enhancements] added support for py2.5 “with” statement with SessionTransaction

    References: #468


  • [sql] the value of “case_sensitive” defaults to True now, regardless of the casing of the identifier, unless specifically set to False. this is because the object might be label’ed as something else which does contain mixed case, and propigating “case_sensitive=False” breaks that. Other fixes to quoting when using labels and “fake” column objects

  • [sql] added a “supports_execution()” method to ClauseElement, so that individual kinds of clauses can express if they are appropriate for executing...such as, you can execute a “select”, but not a “Table” or a “Join”.

  • [sql] fixed argument passing to straight textual execute() on engine, connection. can handle *args or a list instance for positional, **kwargs or a dict instance for named args, or a list of list or dicts to invoke executemany()

  • [sql] small fix to BoundMetaData to accept unicode or string URLs

  • [sql] fixed named PrimaryKeyConstraint generation courtesy andrija at gmail

    References: #466

  • [sql] fixed generation of CHECK constraints on columns

    References: #464

  • [sql] fixes to tometadata() operation to propagate Constraints at column and table level


  • [mysql] fix to reflection on older DB’s that might return array() type for “show variables like” statements


  • [mssql] preliminary support for pyodbc (Yay!)

    References: #419

  • [mssql] better support for NVARCHAR types added

    References: #298

  • [mssql] fix for commit logic on pymssql

  • [mssql] fix for query.get() with schema

    References: #456

  • [mssql] fix for non-integer relationships

    References: #473

  • [mssql] DB-API module now selectable at run-time

    References: #419

  • [mssql] [415] [tickets:422] [481] now passes many more unit tests

  • [mssql] better unittest compatibility with ANSI functions

    References: #479

  • [mssql] improved support for implicit sequence PK columns with auto-insert

    References: #415

  • [mssql] fix for blank password in adodbapi

    References: #371

  • [mssql] fixes to get unit tests working with pyodbc

    References: #481

  • [mssql] fix to auto_identity_insert on db-url query

  • [mssql] added query_timeout to db-url query parms. currently works only for pymssql

  • [mssql] tested with pymssql 0.8.0 (which is now LGPL)


  • [oracle] when returning “rowid” as the ORDER BY column or in use with ROW_NUMBER OVER, oracle dialect checks the selectable its being applied to and will switch to table PK if not applicable, i.e. for a UNION. checking for DISTINCT, GROUP BY (other places that rowid is invalid) still a TODO. allows polymorphic mappings to function.

    References: #436

  • [oracle] sequences on a non-pk column will properly fire off on INSERT

  • [oracle] added PrefetchingResultProxy support to pre-fetch LOB columns when they are known to be present, fixes

    References: #435

  • [oracle] implemented reflection of tables based on synonyms, including across dblinks

    References: #379

  • [oracle] issues a log warning when a related table cant be reflected due to certain permission errors

    References: #363


  • [postgres] better reflection of sequences for alternate-schema Tables

    References: #442

  • [postgres] sequences on a non-pk column will properly fire off on INSERT

  • [postgres] added PGInterval type, PGInet type

    References: #460, #444

  • [extensions] added distinct() method to SelectResults. generally should only make a difference when using count().

  • [extensions] added options() method to SelectResults, equivalent to query.options()

    References: #472

  • [extensions] added optional __table_opts__ dictionary to ActiveMapper, will send kw options to Table objects

    References: #462

  • [extensions] added selectfirst(), selectfirst_by() to assign_mapper

    References: #467


Released: Tue Jan 23 2007


  • [general] global “insure”->”ensure” change. in US english “insure” is actually largely interchangeable with “ensure” (so says the dictionary), so I’m not completely illiterate, but its definitely sub-optimal to “ensure” which is non-ambiguous.


  • [orm] poked the first hole in the can of worms: saying query.select_by(somerelationname=someinstance) will create the join of the primary key columns represented by “somerelationname“‘s mapper to the actual primary key in “someinstance”.

  • [orm] reworked how relations interact with “polymorphic” mappers, i.e. mappers that have a select_table as well as polymorphic flags. better determination of proper join conditions, interaction with user- defined join conditions, and support for self-referential polymorphic mappers.

  • [orm] related to polymorphic mapping relations, some deeper error checking when compiling relations, to detect an ambiguous “primaryjoin” in the case that both sides of the relationship have foreign key references in the primary join condition. also tightened down conditions used to locate “relation direction”, associating the “foreignkey” of the relationship with the “primaryjoin”

  • [orm] a little bit of improvement to the concept of a “concrete” inheritance mapping, though that concept is not well fleshed out yet (added test case to support concrete mappers on top of a polymorphic base).

  • [orm] fix to “proxy=True” behavior on synonym()

  • [orm] fixed bug where delete-orphan basically didn’t work with many-to-many relationships, backref presence generally hid the symptom

    References: #427

  • [orm] added a mutex to the mapper compilation step. ive been reluctant to add any kind of threading anything to SA but this is one spot that its really needed since mappers are typically “global”, and while their state does not change during normal operation, the initial compilation step does modify internal state significantly, and this step usually occurs not at module-level initialization time (unless you call compile()) but at first-request time

  • [orm] basic idea of “session.merge()” actually implemented. needs more testing.

  • [orm] added “compile_mappers()” function as a shortcut to compiling all mappers

  • [orm] fix to MapperExtension create_instance so that entity_name properly associated with new instance

  • [orm] speed enhancements to ORM object instantiation, eager loading of rows

  • [orm] invalid options sent to ‘cascade’ string will raise an exception

    References: #406

  • [orm] fixed bug in mapper refresh/expire whereby eager loaders didn’t properly re-populate item lists

    References: #407

  • [orm] fix to post_update to ensure rows are updated even for non insert/delete scenarios

    References: #413

  • [orm] added an error message if you actually try to modify primary key values on an entity and then flush it

    References: #412


  • [sql] added “fetchmany()” support to ResultProxy

  • [sql] added support for column “key” attribute to be useable in row[<key>]/row.<key>

  • [sql] changed “BooleanExpression” to subclass from “BinaryExpression”, so that boolean expressions can also follow column-clause behaviors (i.e. label(), etc).

  • [sql] trailing underscores are trimmed from func.<xxx> calls, such as func.if_()

  • [sql] fix to correlation of subqueries when the column list of the select statement is constructed with individual calls to append_column(); this fixes an ORM bug whereby nested select statements were not getting correlated with the main select generated by the Query object.

  • [sql] another fix to subquery correlation so that a subquery which has only one FROM element will not correlate that single element, since at least one FROM element is required in a query.

  • [sql] default “timezone” setting is now False. this corresponds to Python’s datetime behavior as well as Postgres’ timestamp/time types (which is the only timezone-sensitive dialect at the moment)

    References: #414

  • [sql] the “op()” function is now treated as an “operation”, rather than a “comparison”. the difference is, an operation produces a BinaryExpression from which further operations can occur whereas comparison produces the more restrictive BooleanExpression

  • [sql] trying to redefine a reflected primary key column as non-primary key raises an error

  • [sql] type system slightly modified to support TypeDecorators that can be overridden by the dialect (ok, that’s not very clear, it allows the mssql tweak below to be possible)


  • [mysql] mysql is inconsistent with what kinds of quotes it uses in foreign keys during a SHOW CREATE TABLE, reflection updated to accommodate for all three styles

    References: #420

  • [mysql] mysql table create options work on a generic passthru now, i.e. Table(..., mysql_engine=’InnoDB’, mysql_collate=”latin1_german2_ci”, mysql_auto_increment=”5”, mysql_<somearg>...), helps

    References: #418


  • [mssql] added an NVarchar type (produces NVARCHAR), also MSUnicode which provides Unicode-translation for the NVarchar regardless of dialect convert_unicode setting.


  • [oracle] slight support for binary, but still need to figure out how to insert reasonably large values (over 4K). requires auto_setinputsizes=True sent to create_engine(), rows must be fully fetched individually, etc.


  • [firebird] order of constraint creation puts primary key first before all other constraints; required for firebird, not a bad idea for others

    References: #408

  • [firebird] Firebird fix to autoload multifield foreign keys

    References: #409

  • [firebird] Firebird NUMERIC type properly handles a type without precision

    References: #409


  • [postgres] fix to the initial checkfirst for tables to take current schema into account

    References: #424

  • [postgres] postgres has an optional “server_side_cursors=True” flag which will utilize server side cursors. these are appropriate for fetching only partial results and are necessary for working with very large unbounded result sets. While we’d like this to be the default behavior, different environments seem to have different results and the causes have not been isolated so we are leaving the feature off by default for now. Uses an apparently undocumented psycopg2 behavior recently discovered on the psycopg mailing list.

  • [postgres] added “BIGSERIAL” support for postgres table with PGBigInteger/autoincrement

  • [postgres] fixes to postgres reflection to better handle when schema names are present; thanks to jason (at)

    References: #402

  • [extensions] added “validate=False” argument to assign_mapper, if True will ensure that only mapped attributes are named

    References: #426

  • [extensions] assign_mapper gets “options”, “instances” functions added (i.e. MyClass.instances())


Released: Fri Dec 15 2006
  • string-based FROM clauses fixed, i.e. select(..., from_obj=[“sometext”])

  • fixes to passive_deletes flag, lazy=None (noload) flag

  • added example/docs for dealing with large collections

  • added object_session() method to sqlalchemy namespace

  • fixed QueuePool bug whereby its better able to reconnect to a database that was not reachable (thanks to Sébastien Lelong), also fixed dispose() method

  • patch that makes MySQL rowcount work correctly!

    References: #396

  • fix to MySQL catch of 2006/2014 errors to properly re-raise OperationalError exception


Released: Sun Dec 10 2006
  • major connection pool bug fixed. fixes MySQL out of sync errors, will also prevent transactions getting rolled back accidentally in all DBs

    References: #387

  • major speed enhancements vs. 0.3.1, to bring speed back to 0.2.8 levels

  • made conditional dozens of debug log calls that were time-intensive to generate log messages

  • fixed bug in cascade rules whereby the entire object graph could be unnecessarily cascaded on the save/update cascade

  • various speedups in attributes module

  • identity map in Session is by default no longer weak referencing. to have it be weak referencing, use create_session(weak_identity_map=True) fixes

    References: #388

  • MySQL detects errors 2006 (server has gone away) and 2014 (commands out of sync) and invalidates the connection on which it occurred.

  • MySQL bool type fix:

    References: #307

  • postgres reflection fixes:

    References: #382, #349


    References: #247

  • assign_mapper in assignmapper extension returns the created mapper

    References: #2110

  • added label() function to Select class, when scalar=True is used to create a scalar subquery i.e. “select x, y, (select max(foo) from table) AS foomax from table”

  • added onupdate and ondelete keyword arguments to ForeignKey; propagate to underlying ForeignKeyConstraint if present. (don’t propagate in the other direction, however)

  • fix to session.update() to preserve “dirty” status of incoming object

  • sending a selectable to an IN via the in_() function no longer creates a “union” out of multiple selects; only one selectable to a the in_() function is allowed now (make a union yourself if union is needed)

  • improved support for disabling save-update cascade via cascade=”none” etc.

  • added “remote_side” argument to relation(), used only with self-referential mappers to force the direction of the parent/child relationship. replaces the usage of the “foreignkey” parameter for “switching” the direction. “foreignkey” argument is deprecated for all uses and will eventually be replaced by an argument dedicated to ForeignKey specification on mappers.


Released: Mon Nov 13 2006


  • [orm] the “delete” cascade will load in all child objects, if they were not loaded already. this can be turned off (i.e. the old behavior) by setting passive_deletes=True on a relation().

  • [orm] adjustments to reworked eager query generation to not fail on circular eager-loaded relationships (like backrefs)

  • [orm] fixed bug where eagerload() (nor lazyload()) option didn’t properly instruct the Query whether or not to use “nesting” when producing a LIMIT query.

  • [orm] fixed bug in circular dependency sorting at flush time; if object A contained a cyclical many-to-one relationship to object B, and object B was just attached to object A, but object B itself wasn’t changed, the many-to-one synchronize of B’s primary key attribute to A’s foreign key attribute wouldn’t occur.

    References: #360

  • [orm] implemented from_obj argument for query.count, improves count function on selectresults

    References: #325

  • [orm] added an assertion within the “cascade” step of ORM relationships to check that the class of object attached to a parent object is appropriate (i.e. if A.items stores B objects, raise an error if a C is appended to A.items)

  • [orm] new extension sqlalchemy.ext.associationproxy, provides transparent “association object” mappings. new example examples/association/ illustrates.

  • [orm] improvement to single table inheritance to load full hierarchies beneath the target class

  • [orm] fix to subtle condition in topological sort where a node could appear twice, for

    References: #362

  • [orm] additional rework to topological sort, refactoring, for

    References: #365

  • [orm] “delete-orphan” for a certain type can be set on more than one parent class; the instance is an “orphan” only if its not attached to any of those parents


  • [engine/pool] some new Pool utility classes, updated docs

  • [engine/pool] “use_threadlocal” on Pool defaults to False (same as create_engine)

  • [engine/pool] fixed direct execution of Compiled objects

  • [engine/pool] create_engine() reworked to be strict about incoming **kwargs. all keyword arguments must be consumed by one of the dialect, connection pool, and engine constructors, else a TypeError is thrown which describes the full set of invalid kwargs in relation to the selected dialect/pool/engine configuration.

  • [databases/types] MySQL catches exception on “describe” and reports as NoSuchTableError

  • [databases/types] further fixes to sqlite booleans, weren’t working as defaults

  • [databases/types] fix to postgres sequence quoting when using schemas


Released: Sun Oct 22 2006


  • [general] logging is now implemented via standard python “logging” module. “echo” keyword parameters are still functional but set/unset log levels for their respective classes/instances. all logging can be controlled directly through the Python API by setting INFO and DEBUG levels for loggers in the “sqlalchemy” namespace. class-level logging is under “sqlalchemy.<module>.<classname>”, instance-level logging under “sqlalchemy.<module>.<classname>.0x..<00-FF>”. Test suite includes “–log-info” and “–log-debug” arguments which work independently of –verbose/–quiet. Logging added to orm to allow tracking of mapper configurations, row iteration.

  • [general] the documentation-generation system has been overhauled to be much simpler in design and more integrated with Markdown


  • [orm] attribute tracking modified to be more intelligent about detecting changes, particularly with mutable types. TypeEngine objects now take a greater role in defining how to compare two scalar instances, including the addition of a MutableType mixin which is implemented by PickleType. unit-of-work now tracks the “dirty” list as an expression of all persistent objects where the attribute manager detects changes. The basic issue that’s fixed is detecting changes on PickleType objects, but also generalizes type handling and “modified” object checking to be more complete and extensible.

  • [orm] a wide refactoring to “attribute loader” and “options” architectures. ColumnProperty and PropertyLoader define their loading behaivor via switchable “strategies”, and MapperOptions no longer use mapper/property copying in order to function; they are instead propagated via QueryContext and SelectionContext objects at query/instances time. All of the internal copying of mappers and properties that was used to handle inheritance as well as options() has been removed; the structure of mappers and properties is much simpler than before and is clearly laid out in the new ‘interfaces’ module.

  • [orm] related to the mapper/property overhaul, internal refactoring to mapper instances() method to use a SelectionContext object to track state during the operation. SLIGHT API BREAKAGE: the append_result() and populate_instances() methods on MapperExtension have a slightly different method signature now as a result of the change; hoping that these methods are not in widespread use as of yet.

  • [orm] instances() method moved to Query now, backwards-compatible version remains on Mapper.

  • [orm] added contains_eager() MapperOption, used in conjunction with instances() to specify properties that should be eagerly loaded from the result set, using their plain column names by default, or translated given an custom row-translation function.

  • [orm] more rearrangements of unit-of-work commit scheme to better allow dependencies within circular flushes to work properly...updated task traversal/logging implementation

  • [orm] polymorphic mappers (i.e. using inheritance) now produces INSERT statements in order of tables across all inherited classes

    References: #321

  • [orm] added an automatic “row switch” feature to mapping, which will detect a pending instance/deleted instance pair with the same identity key and convert the INSERT/DELETE to a single UPDATE

  • [orm] “association” mappings simplified to take advantage of automatic “row switch” feature

  • [orm] “custom list classes” is now implemented via the “collection_class” keyword argument to relation(). the old way still works but is deprecated

    References: #212

  • [orm] added “viewonly” flag to relation(), allows construction of relations that have no effect on the flush() process.

  • [orm] added “lockmode” argument to base Query select/get functions, including “with_lockmode” function to get a Query copy that has a default locking mode. Will translate “read”/”update” arguments into a for_update argument on the select side.

    References: #292

  • [orm] implemented “version check” logic in Query/Mapper, used when version_id_col is in effect and query.with_lockmode() is used to get() an instance that’s already loaded

  • [orm] post_update behavior improved; does a better job at not updating too many rows, updates only required columns

    References: #208

  • [orm] adjustments to eager loading so that its “eager chain” is kept separate from the normal mapper setup, thereby preventing conflicts with lazy loader operation, fixes

    References: #308

  • [orm] fix to deferred group loading

  • [orm] session.flush() wont close a connection it opened

    References: #346

  • [orm] added “batch=True” flag to mapper; if False, save_obj will fully save one object at a time including calls to before_XXXX and after_XXXX

  • [orm] added “column_prefix=None” argument to mapper; prepends the given string (typically ‘_’) to column-based attributes automatically set up from the mapper’s Table

  • [orm] specifying joins in the from_obj argument of will replace the main table of the query, if the table is somewhere within the given from_obj. this makes it possible to produce custom joins and outerjoins in queries without the main table getting added twice.

    References: #315

  • [orm] eagerloading is adjusted to more thoughtfully attach its LEFT OUTER JOINs to the given query, looking for custom “FROM” clauses that may have already been set up.

  • [orm] added join_to and outerjoin_to transformative methods to SelectResults, to build up join/outerjoin conditions based on property names. also added select_from to explicitly set from_obj parameter.

  • [orm] removed “is_primary” flag from mapper.


  • [sql] [construction] changed “for_update” parameter to accept False/True/”nowait” and “read”, the latter two of which are interpreted only by Oracle and Mysql

    References: #292

  • [sql] [construction] added extract() function to sql dialect (SELECT extract(field FROM expr))

  • [sql] [construction] BooleanExpression includes new “negate” argument to specify the appropriate negation operator if one is available.

  • [sql] [construction] calling a negation on an “IN” or “IS” clause will result in “NOT IN”, “IS NOT” (as opposed to NOT (x IN y)).

  • [sql] [construction] Function objects know what to do in a FROM clause now. their behavior should be the same, except now you can also do things like select([‘*’], from_obj=[func.my_function()]) to get multiple columns from the result, or even use sql.column() constructs to name the return columns

    References: #172


  • [schema] a fair amount of cleanup to the schema package, removal of ambiguous methods, methods that are no longer needed. slightly more constrained usage, greater emphasis on explicitness

  • [schema] the “primary_key” attribute of Table and other selectables becomes a setlike ColumnCollection object; is ordered but not numerically indexed. a comparison clause between two pks that are derived from the same underlying tables (i.e. such as two Alias objects) can be generated via table1.primary_key==table2.primary_key

  • [schema] ForeignKey(Constraint) supports “use_alter=True”, to create/drop a foreign key via ALTER. this allows circular foreign key relationships to be set up.

  • [schema] append_item() methods removed from Table and Column; preferably construct Table/Column/related objects inline, but if needed use append_column(), append_foreign_key(), append_constraint(), etc.

  • [schema] table.create() no longer returns the Table object, instead has no return value. the usual case is that tables are created via metadata, which is preferable since it will handle table dependencies.

  • [schema] added UniqueConstraint (goes at Table level), CheckConstraint (goes at Table or Column level).

  • [schema] index=False/unique=True on Column now creates a UniqueConstraint, index=True/unique=False creates a plain Index, index=True/unique=True on Column creates a unique Index. ‘index’ and ‘unique’ keyword arguments to column are now boolean only; for explcit names and groupings of indexes or unique constraints, use the UniqueConstraint/Index constructs explicitly.

  • [schema] added autoincrement=True to Column; will disable schema generation of SERIAL/AUTO_INCREMENT/identity seq for postgres/mysql/mssql if explicitly set to False

  • [schema] TypeEngine objects now have methods to deal with copying and comparing values of their specific type. Currently used by the ORM, see below.

  • [schema] fixed condition that occurred during reflection when a primary key column was explciitly overridden, where the PrimaryKeyConstraint would get both the reflected and the programmatic column doubled up

  • [schema] the “foreign_key” attribute on Column and ColumnElement in general is deprecated, in favor of the “foreign_keys” list/set-based attribute, which takes into account multiple foreign keys on one column. “foreign_key” will return the first element in the “foreign_keys” list/set or None if the list is empty.


  • [sqlite] sqlite boolean datatype converts False/True to 0/1 by default

  • [sqlite] fixes to Date/Time (SLDate/SLTime) types; works as good as postgres now

    References: #335


  • [oracle] Oracle has experimental support for cx_Oracle.TIMESTAMP, which requires a setinputsizes() call on the cursor that is now enabled via the ‘auto_setinputsizes’ flag to the oracle dialect.


  • [firebird] aliases do not use “AS”

  • [firebird] correctly raises NoSuchTableError when reflecting non-existent table


  • [ms-sql] fixes bug 261 (table reflection broken for MS-SQL case-sensitive databases)

  • [ms-sql] can now specify port for pymssql

  • [ms-sql] introduces new “auto_identity_insert” option for auto-switching between “SET IDENTITY_INSERT” mode when values specified for IDENTITY columns

  • [ms-sql] now supports multi-column foreign keys

  • [ms-sql] fix to reflecting date/datetime columns

  • [ms-sql] NCHAR and NVARCHAR type support added

  • [connections/pooling/execution] connection pool tracks open cursors and automatically closes them if connection is returned to pool with cursors still opened. Can be affected by options which cause it to raise an error instead, or to do nothing. fixes issues with MySQL, others

  • [connections/pooling/execution] fixed bug where Connection wouldn’t lose its Transaction after commit/rollback

  • [connections/pooling/execution] added scalar() method to ComposedSQLEngine, ResultProxy

  • [connections/pooling/execution] ResultProxy will close() the underlying cursor when the ResultProxy itself is closed. this will auto-close cursors for ResultProxy objects that have had all their rows fetched (or had scalar() called).

  • [connections/pooling/execution] ResultProxy.fetchall() internally uses DBAPI fetchall() for better efficiency, added to mapper iteration as well (courtesy Michael Twomey)